Testing your REST controllers and clients with Spring

April 2nd, 2019 | 8 min read | mockmvc, REST, Spring, Spring boot, Testing

That Spring allows you to easily develop REST APIs, is probably something we all know by now. With MockMvc and MockRestServiceServer, the same can be said to testing those REST APIs and clients. If you didn’t know this, then you’re at the right place to learn about it, as we’ll explore those options today!

Setting up tests for your controllers

When testing controllers, you can write some unit tests that verify if a specific method call (eg. a service call) is made when a controller method is invoked, but you can also test if the entire mapping properly works, by using MockMvc.

Let’s say we have a controller that allows us to get some famous movie quotes, which has a findAll() operation like this:

@AllArgsConstructor
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/movie-quote")
public class MovieQuoteController {
    private MovieQuoteService service;

    @GetMapping
    public List<MovieQuote> findAll(
        @RequestParam(defaultValue = "0") int page,
        @RequestParam(defaultValue = "10") int pageSize) {
        return service.findAll(page, pageSize);
    }
}

Now, to set up MockMvc, we need to annotate our tests with both @RunWith(SpringRunner.class) and the @WebMvcTest annotation. For example:

@WebMvcTest
@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
public class MovieQuoteControllerTest {
    // TODO: Implement your tests
}

By doing this, Spring will set up MockMvc for us, and we can autowire it properly:

@Autowired
private MockMvc mockMvc;
@MockBean
private MovieQuoteService service;

As you can see, we’re also using the @MockBean annotation so that we can provide a mocked version of our MovieQuoteService as a bean. The nice thing about the @WebMvcTest annotation is that it won’t load your entire application context, but only the web layer. That means that if we didn’t mock this bean, it wouldn’t call the actual implementation, it would just not be able to find a bean.

Writing your first MockMvc test

Now, to start a test, we have to create a new method using the @Test annotation, for example:

@Test
public void getMovieQuotes_shouldUseFindAll() throws Exception {
    // TODO: Implement test
}

Within the method body, we usually do two things:

  1. We mock the results of our service calls
  2. We define our expectations and our API call using MockMvc

When we want to write a test for our previously defined controller method, we’ll have to mock the service.findAll() method:

Movie movie = Movie.builder().id(1L).name("Terminator").build();
when(service.findAll(0, 10)).thenReturn(Lists.newArrayList(
    MovieQuote.builder().id(1L).movie(movie).quote("Hasta la vista, baby").build(),
    MovieQuote.builder().id(2L).movie(movie).quote("I'll be back").build()
));

Note, I’m aware that both quotes were first seen in a different movie within the Terminator franchise, but hey, I’m lazy!

The next step is to use MockMvc to make our API call and write our expectations:

this.mockMvc
    .perform(get("/api/movie-quote"))
    .andExpect(status().isOk())
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[*]", hasSize(2)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[0].id", is(1)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[0].quote", is("Hasta la vista, baby")))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[0].movie.id", is(1)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[0].movie.name", is("Terminator")))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[1].id", is(2)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[1].quote", is("I'll be back")))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[1].movie.id", is(1)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$[1].movie.name", is("Terminator")));

As you can see, MockMvc uses a fluent API, where we can add multiple expectations. In this case I chose to use JSONPath to properly identify certain fields within my JSON response.

Capturing the request body of your controller

With the test we’ve just seen, we’re able to write most tests. One exception is when we have a request body, which we often use to create or update some data. For example:

@PostMapping
public MovieQuote create(@RequestBody MovieQuoteInput input) {
    return service.create(input);
}

Now, if we want to write a test for this, we have to be able to send the request body, and verify that it’s correctly parsed and passed to the service.

In this case, we’ll use the ArgumentMatchers.any() matcher of Mockito to be able to return a result from our service:

Movie movie = Movie.builder().id(1L).name("Terminator").build();
MovieQuote quote = MovieQuote.builder().id(1L).movie(movie).quote("Hasta la vista, baby").build();
when(service.create(any())).thenReturn(quote);

After that, we can perform our POST, and pass some content with MockMvc:

this.mockMvc
    .perform(post("/api/movie-quote")
        .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
        .content("{\"quote\":\"Hasta la vista, baby\", \"movie\": \"Terminator\"}"))
    .andExpect(status().isOk())
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$.id", is(1)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$.quote", is("Hasta la vista, baby")))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$.movie.id", is(1)))
    .andExpect(jsonPath("$.movie.name", is("Terminator")));

The final step is to capture the arguments passed to the service.create(..) method by using Mockito’s ArgumentCaptor API:

ArgumentCaptor<MovieQuoteInput> anyQuote = forClass(MovieQuoteInput.class);
verify(service).create(anyQuote.capture());
assertThat(anyQuote.getValue().getMovie()).isEqualTo("Terminator");
assertThat(anyQuote.getValue().getQuote()).isEqualTo("Hasta la vista, baby");

Using the ArgumentCaptor we can verify if the JSON request matches the MovieQuoteInput class.

Testing exception handlers

A nice feature with Spring Web is the possibility to define exception handlers easily by using the @ExceptionHandlerannotation:

@ExceptionHandler(MovieQuoteNotFoundException.class, MovieNotFoundException.class)
@ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND)
public String notFound(MovieQuoteNotFoundException ex) {
    return ex.getMessage();
}

In this case, our code will return a 404 when a MovieQuoteNotFoundException is thrown anywhere within our code. We’ll simply return the message of the exception, which in our case is a message like: “Quote with id ‘1’ was not found”, for example:

@NoArgsConstructor
@AllArgsConstructor
public class MovieQuoteNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {
    private Long id;

    @Override
    public String getMessage() {
        return format("Quote with id ''{0}'' was not found", id);
    }
}

Now, to write a test for this, we’ll use Mockito to throw the specific exception when certain service is invoked:

when(service.findById(1L)).thenThrow(new MovieQuoteNotFoundException(1L));

After that, we can write our expectations with MockMVC, just like before:

this.mockMvc
    .perform(get("/api/movie-quote/1"))
    .andExpect(status().isNotFound())
    .andExpect(content().string("Quote with id '1' was not found"));

With that, we can do pretty much anything with MockMvc.

Testing your REST client

Another nice feature of Spring is the RestTemplate, which allows us to easily define which REST calls should be made.

Now, let’s say we have a client that calls our GET /api/movie-quote operation, which we defined earlier. To do that, we would write something like this:

@Component
@AllArgsConstructor
public class MovieQuoteClient {
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    public List<MovieQuote> findAll(int page, int pageSize) {
        return restTemplate
            .exchange("/movie-quote?page={page}&pageSize={pageSize}", HttpMethod.GET, null, new ListReference(), page, pageSize)
            .getBody();
    }

    private class ListReference extends ParameterizedTypeReference<List<MovieQuote>> { }
}

Due to the fact that we’re using a generic (List<MovieQuote>), we have to use a ParameterizedTypeReference, which we’ve defined as a private inner class.

Now, when writing tests for this, you can simply use Mockito to verify that the arguments are correct, or you could use MockRestServiceServer to define your tests.

Just like before, we have to add specific annotations to our test to make this happen. In this case, we have to use both @RunWith(SpringRunner.class) and the @RestClientTest annotation:

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@RestClientTest({MovieQuoteClient.class, MovieQuoteClientConfiguration.class})
public class MovieQuoteClientTest {
    // TODO: Implement tests
}

As you can see, we’re adding both the MovieQuoteClient.class as a class called MovieQuoteClientConfiguration.class to the @RestClientTest. This allows Spring to setup the client, and the RestTemplate bean, which I’ve setup within MovieQuoteClientConfiguration:

@Bean
public RestTemplate restTemplate(RestTemplateBuilder builder) {
    return builder
        .rootUri("http://localhost:8080/api")
        .build();
}

After that, we can autowire the necessary parts in our test:

@Autowired
private MovieQuoteClient client;
@Autowired
private MockRestServiceServer server;

In this case, we’ll autowire the Spring bean that uses RestTemplate, and MockRestServiceServer to mock our REST calls.

Now, testing your RestTemplateis similar to testing with MockMvc, as it will also contain two steps:

  1. Rather than mocking a specific method, we define which REST call should be made, which parameters are expected, and what result should be returned.
  2. After that, we can write our assertions using AssertJ.

For the findAll() method, we could write our expectations like this:

server
    .expect(once(), requestTo(startsWith("/movie-quote")))
    .andExpect(method(HttpMethod.GET))
    .andExpect(queryParam("page", "0"))
    .andExpect(queryParam("pageSize", "10"))
    .andRespond(withSuccess(new ClassPathResource("movie-quotes.json"), MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON));

In this case, I’ve stored the “dummy response” within a JSON file called src/test/resources/movie-quotes.json. This will be returned when all expectations are fulfilled.

The next step is to write our assertions. Since our result will be a list of MovieQuote objects, I first wrote a simple class with the methods that could be exctracted within the test:

public final class MovieQuoteExtractors {
    public static Function<MovieQuote, Object> quote() {
        return MovieQuote::getQuote;
    }

    public static Function<MovieQuote, Object> movieName() {
        return quote -> quote.getMovie().getName();
    }

    public static Function<MovieQuote, Object> movieId() {
        return quote -> quote.getMovie().getId();
    }

    public static Function<MovieQuote, Object> id() {
        return MovieQuote::getId;
    }
}

This allows us to write assertions like this, and re-use these in other tests:

assertThat(client.findAll(0, 10))
    .extracting(id(), movieId(), movieName(), quote())
    .containsOnlyOnce(
        tuple(1L, 1L, "Terminator", "Hasta la vista, baby"),
        tuple(2L, 1L, "Terminator", "I'll be back"));

Matching the request body

If we want to write a client for our POST /api/movie-quote operation, we’ll write code like this:

public MovieQuote create(MovieQuoteInput input) {
    return restTemplate.postForObject("/movie-quote", input, MovieQuote.class);
}

To test something like this, we have to make sure that the JSON request body matches our expectations, and just like before, we can use JSONPath to do so:

@Test
public void create_callsPostMovieQuotes() {
    server
        .expect(once(), requestTo(startsWith("/movie-quote")))
        .andExpect(method(HttpMethod.POST))
        .andExpect(jsonPath("$.movie", is("Terminator")))
        .andExpect(jsonPath("$.quote", is("I'll be back")))
        .andRespond(withSuccess(new ClassPathResource("movie-quote.json"), MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON));
    assertThat(client.create(MovieQuoteInput.builder().movie("Terminator").quote("I'll be back").build()))
        .extracting(id(), movieId(), movieName(), quote())
        .containsExactly(1L, 1L, "Terminator", "Hasta la vista, baby");
}

With that, we’re able to write tests for both the controllers we write, as the clients we write on top of these controllers.

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Dimitri "g00glen00b" Mestdagh is a consultant at Cronos and tech lead at Aquafin. Usually you can find him trying out new libraries and technologies. Loves both Java and JavaScript.